Botswana cultural

Botswana Cultural

The make up of Botswana’s cultural heritage comprises arts, crafts, ceremonies, language, beliefs, myths and legends.

Ethnics Groups

San & Khoi


Tsodilo Hills

some 50km west of the village of Sepupa, the sheer quartzite cliff-faces of the four Tsodilo Hills rise. 

The four hills form a line and are referred to by the San people as “The Male” – the largest hill which reaches a height of 410 metres above the surrounding plain “The Female” – a smaller hill, about 300m, but has an overall area of almost three times that of The Male.

The next in size of 40m is referred to as “The Child” and lies about 2km away from The Female. 

Beyond these three is a much smaller unnamed knoll, located 2.2km northwest of The Child, which legend has it was The Male Hill’s first wife who was discarded when he met and married the taller Female Hill.

Tsodilo is a place of special significance to the San who have been living here for thousands of years. 

They believe the hills are a resting place for the spirits of the deceased and that their various gods live in caverns within the Female Hill, from where they rule the world. 

The most sacred place is near the top of the Male Hill; legend has it that the first spirit knelt here to pray after creating the world.

Scientists have identified the shorelines of a small lake. 

Among the rare artifacts found there are some animal bone fish hooks dating back more than 20,000 years. Other archaeological discoveries include the location of mines among the hills. 

There is evidence that between AD 800 and 1,100 the people at Tsodilo were engaged in mining black hematite, and possibly mica, and trading it through the extensive trade networks of Africa.